Original materials. An analysis of primary sources or events . Circle the correct answer. Hard labor made tobacco, rice, and sugar plantations profitable. Although the black traders who dealt in African slaves were careful not to revel the circumstances under which slaves were collected, Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon who was involved in the slave trade, had reason to believe that most of the slaves were victims of a heartless action known as kidnapping (1973: 13). Munford 1991,, Clarence J. Middle Passage, the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World. Source 8: A slave revolt. This video gives a brief description of primary and secondary sources, how to identify them, and where to search for them.-- Created using PowToon ** Ask yourself.... Did/could the author/creator witness/make the artifact? Source 10: Cruikshank's cartoon . The modified design of the holds exacerbated and promoted unhealthy conditions for the slaves, resulting in high mortality, along with the physical weakening and psychological traumatizing of the rest. The women were not put in irons, unless they were considered troublesome. These purchasers tried to revive the sick to a condition where they could be used or resold at a profit. Falconbridge likened it to a slaughterhouse (1973: 24, 25). Change ). The Middle Passage did not begin with the transatlantic voyage, but with the capture and sale of Africans, and ended with their forced ‘adjustment’ to life in the Americas. If this article or any other content on https://aoxoa.co/ was helpful to you, and you’d like to show your support: Your email address will not be published. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Primary and secondary source work, Week six identifying primary and secondary sources, Comparing primary and secondary sources lesson plan, Primary secondary sources, Teaching primary and secondary sources, Primary sources, Primary secondary and tertiary sources in … Other slaves refused to eat, preferring death to their emotional and physical trauma (Pierson, 1977: 150). Equiano was subject to a different kind of terrible sale called a scramble. Your email address will not be published. Northbrook, Ill: Metro books, Inc. Equiano, Olaudah. It designated the bottom line of a trading triangle, between the “outward passage” from Europe to Africa and the “homeward passage” from the Americas back to Europe. According to Equiano, “The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. These storage selves made it impossible for slaves to stand while stored, much less sit upright. The transport of African slaves formed one leg of the Triangular Trade, an economic system that drastically altered the societies of four continents. Slaves that were weak, but not deathly sick, were fed and cleaned before being marched to the merchants’ yard to await the grim treatment of the auction (Thomas, 1997: 432). Primary Source: Olaudah Equiano Describes the Middle Passage, 1789. This is part 1 of a lesson learning about the middle passage. He goes on to say that, “It frequently happens that those who kidnap others are themselves, in their turns, seized and sold. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. “The men could only jump up and rattle their chains” (Dow, 1968: 195). Jan 23, 2019 - primary-source-middle-passage-19659-article_only The greedy, brutish, madhouse of the scramble was just another stress for the poor slaves. Passage. Falconbridge reports, “About eight o’clock in the morning the Negroes are generally brought upon deck. As to be expected, most of their songs were filled with the sorrow and despair of being torn from their country and kin. “This becomes a fresh source of boils and disturbances…rendering the condition of the poor captive wretches still more uncomfortable” (Falconbridge, 1973: 21). Next come the lesions which ulcerate soon after formation” (Razi, 2000). 1998. A negroe in the West-Indies informed me that after having been employed in kidnapping others, he had experienced this reverse. Download, reproduce, distribute, and enjoy a warm beverage while students dive into the Middle Passage. One dame was not satisfied until she forced a wench to screech by squeezing her breast cruelly” (Drake, 1972: 45). In rough seas or rainy weather, it was necessary to close the airports to prevent the hold from being flooded and the victims could be locked below deck for days (Munford, 1991: 305). The slave trade was a vast system involving many types of people. They were boiled into a pulp served with a pepper laced “slabber-sauce”. It is in these slave castles where some prisoners of the trade died from injuries inflicted during their capture or disease brought on from the wet, unhealthy environment (Palmer, 2002: 54). They were then branded with the identifying marks of their owners, using hot irons (Drake, 1972: 43). Vitamin C and Scurvy. Equiano recalls, “There was much dread and trembling among us, and nothing but bitter cries to be heard all the night from these apprehensions…The white people got some old slaves from the land to pacify us. It was handed to them in a small utensil that resembled a sauce-boat (Falconbridge, 1973: 22). Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names. Drake reported what an auction entailed, “The Dutch maids walked around inspecting the naked Africans as if it was a common thing. Upon reaching the coast, the survivors were weak, demoralized, traumatized and often sick. There have even been reports of a captain who poured melted lead onto slaves who refused to eat (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). Source 2: Campaign Medallion. ... For this American colonies lesson, 4th graders research using primary and secondary sources, Native Americans, Europeans, and African Americans role in the... Get Free Access See Review. Th… The food was terrible and the worst was horse beans. Source 10 - Cruikshank's cartoon . New York : Barnes & Noble Inc. Conneau, Theophilus Captain. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Groups of ten would be given one bucket of food, which they ate out of with their hands. To summarize, the transportation of African slaves from the West coast of Africa, across the Atlantic, to the Americas during the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries has come to be known as The Middle Passage. It is one of history’s most horrific chapters, showing the human capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and survival. “Estimates of mortality during The Middle Passage vary, but the available evidence suggests that about 40 percent of each cargo died during the sixteenth century, 15 percent during the seventeenth, and between 5 and 10 percent in later years” (Palmer, 2002: 54). Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The rumor was that white cannibals had a fondness for eating African flesh (Pierson, 1977: 147, 148). The Middle Passage Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. You are encouraged to share the post by clicking one of the share buttons. Secondary sources can include history books, school textbooks, encyclopedias, History magazines, websites, and documentaries. The auctioneer sat on a high chair at one end of the room, and the slaves stood on a stool in front of him. Buying and enslaving the people who supplied this labor ultimately became a lucrative and tragic part of the commerce in the maritime web that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Thomas, Hugh. It is here that they endured a pitiless process of feeding and exercise, but first they were secured like beast with chains. The result was that slaves would be forced to relieve themselves as they lay there (Falconbridge, 1973: 20, 21). Identifying Primary and Secondary Sources. the “middle passage” is an old maritime phrase, dating to the heyday of the Atlantic slave trade. Slaves were treated so badly on the slave ships that about 15% of them died during the Middle Passage. Q. In this lesson, students will use primary sources from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture to better understand the history of slavery in the United States. The sheer scale of the trade can obscure the experiences of individuals. Source 1: Committee Minutes. Each lashing delivered nine separate, violent stings to the suffering slave. define the Middle Passage and relate its role in the slave trade ; discuss the conditions of slaves on Middle Passage ; Length: 1 hour . The first visible signs would have been the appearance of raised red spots on the skin. By this means fifty or sixty, and four times more, are fastened to one chain, in order to prevent them from rising, or endeavoring to escape. Required fields are marked *, Native American Headdress – Music Festival Goers. The disheartened slaves were also forced by the cracking of the whip to sing. Introduction to Primary and Secondary Sources for Elementary and Middle School Students Objectives: This is a skill-based lesson that is intended to introduce a wide range of students to the world of primary sources and how to work and think critically like a historian. And he assured me that it was a common incident among his countrymen” (Falconbridge, 1973: 14). Exterminated by the Bloody Flux. Gregory Ablavsky et al., “British North America,” Daniel Johnson, ed., in The Slave Trade. This article will briefly outline the major phases of The Middle Passage and describe some of the treatments and conditions the enslaved Africans experienced. Source: David Eltis and David Richardson, Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New Haven, 2010). Are these primary or secondary sources? 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